· Listening,Transcript

Đề số 5

1. Section 1

Narrator: John Helstone, a student from London University wants to know some information about the 21 conference. You will hear a conversation between John and university staff. Now you have some time to look at questions 1 to 5. Listen carefully and answer questions 1 to 5.

Secretary:...University. Good morning.

Student: Oh! Good morning. Can you put me through the School of Architecture, please.

Secretary: Certainly. School of Architecture, Professor Dawson’s office.

Student: Oh! Good morning. I was wondering if you could give me some information about the forthcoming Architecture 21 conference – dates, enrollment procedures, costs. That sort of thing.

Secretary: Certainly.

Student: When exactly is the conference?

Secretary: Well… the conference runs for 3 days, from the 18th to the 20th of October.

Student: 18th to the 20th of October… Oh good. I’ll still be here then, and where exactly is it being held? Is it at the university as in previous years?

Secretary: No, it’s actually being held at the Pacific Hotel. We’re rather outgrowing the university conference facilities, so we’ve opted for this new venue.

Student: Right. Paradise Hotel.

Secretary: No. Pacific Hotel.

Student: Oh right. And presumably, we can get accommodation at the hotel?

Secretary: Yes, but you’ll need to contact them direct to arrange that. I’ll give you the number for hotel reservations. Have you got a pen ready?

Student: Yes, go ahead.

Secretary: Its area code: 07-93332233

Student: Ok, and what’s the registration fee?

Secretary: Individual fees are $300 for the three days, or $120 a day if you only want to attend for one day.

Student: Are there any student concessions?

Secretary: Oh, sure. There’s a 50% concession for students, and that’s $150 for the three days, or $60 a day.

Student: And am I too late to offer to give a talk?

Secretary: Oh, I’m pretty sure you’ve missed the deadline for that.

Student: Oh, really? But I’ve only just arrived here in Australia. Is there any way I could have a paper accepted?

Secretary: Well, you’d need to talk to Professor Dawson. He's the person organizing the conference this year. I can put you through if you like.

Student: Oh yes, please. That’d be great. Oh, and can I just check the spelling of his name. Is that D-A-W-S-O-N?

Secretary: Yes, that’s correct.

Narrator: Before you hear the rest of the talk, you have some time to look at questions 5 to 10. Now listen carefully and answer questions 5 to 10.

Prof. Dawson: Professor Dawson speaking.

Student: Oh, hello. My name’s John Helstone. I’m an architecture student at London University. I’m here in Australia for three months, looking at energy-saving house designs.

Prof. Dawson: Right.

Student: I’m interested in giving a talk on my research at the conference but I believe I may have missed the deadline.

Prof. Dawson: Well, strictly speaking, you have. The closing date was last Friday.

Student: Oh, no!

Prof. Dawson: But we may be able to include your paper if it fits into our program… but you’ll have to be quick.

Student: OK. What do I need to do?

Prof. Dawson: Send me an outline of your talk. And make sure you include an interesting title for the talk. Something to attract the delegates' attention.

Student: OK. Interesting title, right?

Prof. Dawson: The outline should be no more than 300 words though.

Student: Right. I should be able to keep it down to 300 words, but would 400 be Ok?

Prof. Dawson: No, not really, because we have to print it in the proceedings and we just don’t have the space.

Student: Sure, I understand.

Prof. Dawson: And also, can you send me a short CV - the usual stuff - name, age, and qualifications, that sort of thing.

Student: Right, including a brief CV.

Prof. Dawson: Actually, you can email it to me. That’d be quicker.

Student: Sure. What’s your email address?

Prof. Dawson: Well, the best thing would be to send it to the conference administrative officer. The address is "admin", in lower case. You know, in small letters.

Student: Right.

Prof. Dawson: So that

Student: Right. I’ll do that straight away. Thank you very much. You've been very helpful.

Prof. Dawson: Ok, we hope to see you in October then.

Narrator: That is the end of section 1. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 2.

2. Section 2

Narrator: In this section, you will hear a radio program on process of making beer. First, you have some time to look at questions 11 to 21. Now listen to the program carefully and answer questions 11 to 21.

Woman Voice: Hello and welcome to Gourmet evening, and this week we’re looking at the world’s popular beverage, a great favourite today – beer. And in the studio to tell us all about it is Clark Maxwell.

Maxwell: Beer is one of my personal favourite beverages and I’ve got a number of facts, tips, and trivia about beer to share with you. So who invented beer and when? What is beer made of?

Actually, historians are not entirely sure when beer was invented, but they guess that beer was created accidentally by early nomadic tribes roughly 10,000 years ago. The four primary ingredients are malt, hops, yeast, and water. Malt which gives the beer a sweet taste is made from barley soaked in water until its husks open and sprout. The sprouts are then dried and crushed. The small flowers of the hops vine are added partly because they taste bitter helping balance the sweetness of the malt. Hops prevent the growth of bacteria that can spoil beer. Yeast is responsible for fermentation which creates the alcohol and carbonation. Beer makers sometimes use additives or substitutes for malt or hops. Substitutes such as corn or rice can make a beer lighter or cheaper to produce. Adding fruit gives beer a fruity taste. Beer is not high in alcohol, now as we know, the lowest type of light beer contains no more than 2% alcohol and the highest may reach 6%.

Other drinks such as wine are more alcoholic, wine contains 8 to 20% alcohol but that is not to say drinking beer is no dangerous at all. Like all alcoholic beverages, beer can make it difficult to drive and think clearly. Excessive drinking can also lead to liver damage, high blood pressure, stomach ulcers, and other health problems.

However, beer also helps prevent some health problems when consumed in moderation. Beer contains a moderate number of vitamins and minerals. Studies have shown that small amounts of alcohol can reduce the risk of heart disease. Beer also contains selenium, a mineral that promotes bone growth and helps reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

I suppose many of you think beer can give you a beer belly, but you are mistaken. Genes determine how fat is deposited, no food or drink can create fat deposits in specific areas of the body as with all food, the more calories you consume, the more likely they are to be stored as fat and to weigh gain. Beer contains no fat and averages 150 calories per serving.

Well, one more thing, pay attention to the storage and containers of beer, they will affect its taste. It’s a mistake that the dates of beer improves with age, like that of some wines. Beer is a food product that will eventually become stale. It should be stored in a cool dark location before consumption, and the colour of the bottle can influence the flavour. Brown bottles block out light that reacts with the hops which could damage the favour. Green or clear bottles provide little or no protection from light damage. Do you know which country drinks the most beer?

Although Britain is even on the list of big consumers, actually the Czech Republic consumes the most beer, at 156 litres per person per year, followed by Ireland and Germany.

Narrator: That is the end of section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to section 3.

3. Section 3

Narrator: You are going to hear a conversation between an interviewer and a professor. First, you have some time to look at questions 21 to 26. Now listen to the tape and answer questions 21 to 26.

Woman: Today I’m here with Professor Nitik, who is our new University President. He has been a professor for 20 years and teaches many of the best classes on campus. I know many of you had him as a teacher and know of his brilliance. Good morning Professor Nitik. Thank you for stopping by the student station.

Prof. Nitik: Thank you for having me here. It is always great to get to meet many of the students who are involved with our school. I haven’t been here since two years ago.

Woman: Yes, I remember at that time you were still teaching every semester. Two years later you’re only teaching everyone in a while, but it seems like you are still always busy. The administration work is just busy as the teaching world for you. How do you stay in touch with the university? Even with the change in your everyday duties.

Prof. Nitik: I try to get in touch with what is popular with the university students. I usually spend time with as many students as I can. They usually give me insight into what the new concerns and beliefs are for the new generation. On top of that, I try to be youthful as I can. I consider myself to be youthful, at least from my age, so I always have a good time and try to stay young. I try my best to not just be a teacher, but also participate in university life.

Woman: Interesting. So are you still doing lots of academic work or are you mostly concentrating on administrative affairs?

Prof. Nitik: Well, I mostly do administrative affairs now, but that doesn’t mean that I still don’t have a very deep interest in academic matters. I often visit to other campuses around the world and meet other professors in my field. I learn the most by travelling and seeing the different places of the world and the different fields of thought. I even did a television program last month in Manchester.

Woman: Will you be on television anytime soon then?

Prof. Nitik: Well, you can call the television station and see if I will be on television anytime soon, maybe I will be on the news report. I don’t think it is really that significant, though.

Woman: Oh really. That sounds great. I will remember to look out for you. Let’s move on. With all your busy travelling recently, how do you find time for your personal life?

Prof. Nitik: I try to keep my university life separate from my personal life. Sometimes it’s hard to find time to just take my wife and three kids out for a family dinner, but usually, we all manage to get together every few days. I am taking a few weeks off next month to take my family down to South America to Brazil for a few days. I can’t wait to just seat Woman on the beach.

Woman: Wow, that sounds like a wonderful trip. Professor Nitik, could you tell the audience a little about what goes on in an average day of a university administrator?

Prof. Nitik: Ahhaa, an average day. Oh, I don’t think there is such thing as an average day for me. The last few weeks, I’ve been traveling all the time. I can be in Los Angeles in the morning and in New York by the afternoon and back to Los Angeles by the evening. Sometimes I will spend the whole week at a new university showing the new administrators the ins and outs of running a university. Sometimes I can spend the whole day in the office on the phone, so there really is no average day for me. I guess that because I do so many different tasks. Sorry to let all of you is down, but that is the plain truth.

Narrator: Now look at questions 27 to 30. Now listen to the tape and answer questions 27 to 30.

Woman: Well, I guess I can sum it up for them. You are a busy man. That is probably a good description. So are there any immediate plans for the coming few weeks?

Prof. Nitik: Well, I’m in Los Angeles for the next two days and then I fly to Colorado to meet a new prospective professor for our university. I will be in Colorado for about a week, then I go to Japan for the next 10 days to meet with our university branch in Japan about record sales there. After that, I return to Los Angeles for a week, just in time for the graduation of the class of 2001. There you have it, my next month's schedule.

Woman: Thank you very much, Professor Nitik. I always enjoy having you on our show. We hope to have you back in our show next time.

Narrator: That is the end of section 3. You now have 30 seconds to check your answers. Now turn to section 4.

4. Section 4

Narrator: You will hear part with an advertising lecture. First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 34 now listen carefully and answer questions 31 to 34.

Good morning, everyone. Today's appetizing lecture is on the history and development of highway billboards and their effectiveness. Later on, we will look at their design and different uses. The roots of billboard advertising can be traced to the invention of movable type printing by Johannes Gutenberg as far back as 1450, and advertising in the modern sense was launched in the form of the Hanceville. When the lithographic process was perfected in 1796, the illustrated poster became a reality. Gradually, measures were taken to ensure exposure of a message for a fixed period of time. In order to offer more desirable locations where traffic was heavy, bill posters began to erect their own structures. In 1835, the large American outdoor poster, more than 50 square feet, originated in New York in Jared Bell's office, where he printed posters for the circus. In 1900, a standardized billboard structure was created in America and ushered in a boom in national billboard campaigns.

There are a number of reasons for the recent surge in billboard advertising, not the least of which is cost-efficiency. Compared to other forms of advertising, billboards are a relatively inexpensive way to get your point across to the general public. Consider this, a newspaper ad is only good for a day, and the television commercial only lasts about 30 seconds; but a billboard ad is working for you 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The cost of billboard advertising ranges from about $700 to $2,500 a month. At that rate, ten billboards could run for as much as $25,000 per month. That sounds like a lot of money until you realize that a full-page ad running for one day in a major newspaper costs about the same. So billboard advertising can be an effective and cost-efficient way for entrepreneurs to spread the word about their products and services.

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America estimates that US businesses spent more than 5.5 billion dollars on outdoor advertising last year, and the Association is anticipating a healthy increase over the next few years. Advances in technology have also contributed to billboard advertising cost-efficiency. In the past, billboards had to be hand-painted, a time-consuming and costly venture; but with today's computer technology, billboards are designed on a computer screen, printed to final or poster paper, and glued to the billboard structure. The result is higher quality ads in less time for less money.

Narrator: You now have some time to look at questions 35 to 40. Now listen to the rest of the lecture and answer questions 35 to 40.

Let's look now at a famous example. In 1925, Alan Odell, who owned a small company that made a brushless shaving cream, noticed that gas stations and other local businesses were increasing trade by putting up advertising signs along the nation's highways. He decided that he could increase his sales by putting up sets of signs, five in a set. They would not have to be big and a short line on each one would do.

At first, Odell tried the hard sell approach, sales began to increase at once, but that did not satisfy him. "Motorists see these signs", he told himself. At remote places on the highway, perhaps after hours of monotonous driving, they would appreciate a touch of rhyme and humour, they would indeed. It was not long before the catchy Burma-shave signs, some ironic, some cynical, some absurd, but all of them funny, caught the fancy of nearly everyone including those people usually critical of advertising. These signs continued as the advertising medium of the company for 35 years, and then when cars traveled too fast to take in these messages, more than a dozen words paint in rather small letters. The company phased out its roadside advertising. Perhaps the growing criticism of this sort of advertising which interfered with highway scenery also influenced the company's decision.

By late 1965, this criticism resulted in President Lyndon Johnson's highway beautification bill. This bill authorized a federal-state campaign to improve the scenery on either side of major highways to conceal or remove junkyards, and to put billboards sufficiently far back from the highway so that they would not interfere with the view. States that did not comply with the bill could lose 10% of their federal highway grant. But this was not the end of the billboard industry, many roads were not part of the highway system which was supported by federal grants, and these roads were not affected by the law, and nor with science in commercial and industrial areas. Now let's look at some of the advertising developments in Europe.

Narrator: That is the end of section 4, you will now have half minute to check your answers.

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