1. Section 1
Narrator: Listen to the following lecture about lightning and write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS to complete the following sentences. First, you have some time to read the sentences. Now hear is a lecture about lightning.
In the earliest times, men considered lighting to be one of the great mysteries of nature. Some ancient people believed that lightning and thunder were the weapons of God. In reality, lightning is a flow of electricity formed high above the earth.
A single flash of lightning 1.6 kilometres long has enough electricity to light 1 million light bulbs. The American scientist and statesman Benjamin Franklin was the first to show the connection between electricity and lightning in 1752. In the same year, he also built the first lightning rod. This device protects buildings from damage by lightning. Modern science has discovered that one stoke of lightning contains more than 15 million volts. A spark between a cloud and the Earth may be as long as 13 kilometres and travels at a speed of 30 million meters per second. Scientists estimate that there are about 2,000 million flashes of lightning per year. Lightning hits the Empire State Building in New York City 30 to 48 times a year. In the United States alone, it kills an average of one person every day.
The safest place to be in case of an electrical storm is in a closed car. Outside, one should go to low ground and not under trees. Also, one should stay out of water and away from metal fences. Inside a house, people should avoid opening doorways and windows and not touch wires or metal things. With lightning, it is better to be safe than sorry.
2. Section 2
Narrator: You will hear a recorded message giving information about an area where tourists can visit to taste local food. First, you will have some time to look at questions 11 to 13. Now, listen carefully to the first part of the message and answer questions 11 to 13.
Welcome to the tourist information line for the Valley Food Trait, here you will find many local food products for you to sample and buy. It is possible for you to spend as much or as little time as you want, but I suggest that you allow a full day for touring this area. Of course, there are many half-day tours available for those of you short on time.
Now, it’s quite a large area and stretches from Brookville to Ford Hill. For those of you unfamiliar with the area, that means that it is 10 kilometers to 35 kilometers from the city center, or by car 15 minutes to the closest point, continuing to 55 minutes as its furthest point from the CBD. Of course, apart from food, there are many places of interest in this area, including cafes and restaurants and galleries and studios. But I wouldn’t recommend you go here to see parks and gardens. The other information lines will give you specific information related to these particular attractions.
Narrator: Before the final part of the message, you now have 20 seconds to look at questions 14 to 20. Now answer questions 14 to 20.
But let’s go back to food. If we begin in Brookville and head north towards Upper Valley in a clockwise direction, passing West Valley on West Road, we cross over Coast Road to come to our first place of interest – Magic Coffee. This is not to be confused with the Coffee House situated opposite on the other side of the valley on the Railway line. Magic Coffee is next to the Chocolate Company which is on the corner. Just past the ice cream shop on the corner of John Street is the Fresh Produce shop. A little further north, we have reached Ford Hill, where we can start our drive southwards along Great Northern Highway following the railway line.
First, we come to the Organic Market near the corner of Memorial Avenue and then to Olive Farm, opposite Olive Road. Just before we come to the next street crossing, we see the Honey Pot, which is practically opposite the Coffee House. There is another Chocolate Company which sells Nougat as well, just nearby. Following the Railway line along Great Northern Highway, we return back to Brookville. Now, as I have said previously if you only have few hours to spare, there are several places that you shouldn’t miss. The two chocolate places make equally nice chocolate, but the factory has the added bonus of nougat, unlike the company, of course, everyone loves ice cream especially unusual flavors such as coffee and nougat. So the Ice Creamery is definitely worth a visit. And while the Coffee House sells expertly made hot drinks including hot chocolate, I think your time would be better spent sampling the many products on offer at the Organic Market. Well, I hope you enjoy your time visiting the Valley Food Trait and enjoy all the wonderful local foods on offer.
Narrator: That is the end of Section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to Section 3
3. Section 3
Narrator: You will hear a conversation between two students Lynne and Robin who are discussing an assignment. First, you have some time to look at questions 21 to 30. Now, listen carefully to the conversation and answer questions 21 to 30.
Lynne: That essay we have to write, the one on how children learn through the media. How are you planning to write it?
Robin: Well, I’ve given it some thought and I think that the best way to approach it is to divide the essay into two parts. First of all, we’d have to look at some examples of each type of media.
Lynne: Yes, what they are, then we could describe how we can use each medium so that children can learn something from each one.
Robin: Exactly. Maybe we could drop a table and look at examples of each medium in turn. (Hmm). Let’s see, the different forms of media would be the print media.
Lynne: Period of things like books and newspapers, that sort of thing.
Robin: Hmm, and included in these are the pictorial forms of media like maps.
Lynne: Yes, maps are really just formal pictures, aren’t they? (Hmm). And then there are what we call the audio forms of media where children can listen, CDs and radios are probably the best examples because a lot of children have access to these, especially radios.
Robin: And this would lead to the audio-visual media which can be seen as well as heard – film, television. And we mustn’t forget videos.
Lynne: Yes, but there’re a final category as well – computers, that make up the so-called electronic media. In the United Kingdom and Australia, they say that one in three families has a computer now.
Robin: Yes, I believe it. Well, that’s a good list to start with. We’re really getting some of it as I say now. So let’s move on to when each type of media could be used. I guess we could start by trying to identify the best situation for each type of media.
Lynne: What do you mean?
Robin: I’m talking about whether each medium should be used with different-sized groups. For example, we can look at pictures and ask whether they’re more useful for an individual child, a few children together, or a full class. In this case, I’d say pictures are best with individual children because they give them an opportunity to let their imaginations run wild.
Lynne: Yes, I see.
Robin: Let’s take tapes next. Although tapes look ideal for individual children, I feel they’re best suited to small group work. This way children don’t feel isolated because they can get help from their friends. Computers are the same, I think they’re better with small numbers of children and they’re hardly ever useful with the whole class. Videos, however, are ideal for use with everyone present in the class, especially when children have individual activity sheets to help them focus their minds on what’s in the video.
Lynne: And what about books? what would you recommend for them? Books are ideal for children to use by themselves. I know they’re used with groups in schools, but I wouldn’t recommend it. Other pictorial media like maps, though, are different…I’d always plan group work around those… give the children a chance to interact and to share ideas.
Robin: I agree… teachers often just leave maps on the wall for children to look at when they have some free time, but kids really enjoy using them for problem-solving.
Lynne: Yes, different people have different ideas, I suppose…
Robin: Yes, and different teachers recommend different tools for different age groups…
Narrator: That is the end of Section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to Section 4.
4. Section 4
Narrator: You are going to hear a lecture on William Kidd. First, you have some time to look at questions 31 to 40. Now listen to the tape and answer the questions.
A pirate story, William Kidd.
William Kidd, who is better known by the name Captain Kidd, was the 17th-century British privateer and semi-legendary pirate, who became celebrated in English literature as one of the most colorful outlaws of all time. Fortune seekers have hunted his buried treasure in vain through succeeding centuries.
Kidd’s early career is obscure. It is believed he went to sea as a youth. After 1689, he was sailing as a legitimate privateer for Great Britain against the French in the West Indies and off the coast of North America. In 1690 he was an established sea captain and shipowner in New York City, where he owned property. At various times he was dispatched by both New York and Massachusetts to rid the coast of enemy privateers. In London in 1695, he received a royal commission to apprehend pirates who molested the ships of the East India Company in the Red Sea and in the Indian Ocean.
Kidd sailed from Deptford on his ship, the Adventure Galley, on February 27, 1696, called at Plymouth, and arrived at New York City on July 4 to take on more men. Avoiding the normal pirate haunts, he arrived by February 1697 at the Comoros Islands of East Africa. It was apparently some time after his arrival there that Kidd, still without having taken a prize ship, decided to turn to piracy. In August 1697, he made an unsuccessful attack on ships sailing with Mocha coffee from Yemen but later took several small ships. His refusal two months later to attack a Dutch ship nearly brought his crew to mutiny, and in an angry exchange, Kidd mortally wounded his gunner, William Moore.
Kidd took his most valuable prize, the Armenian ship Quedagh Merchant, in January 1698 and scuttled his own unseaworthy Adventure Galley. When he reached Anguilla, in the West Indies (April 1699), he learned that he had been denounced as a pirate. He left the Quedagh Merchant at the island of Hispaniola - where the ship was possibly scuttled; in any case, it disappeared with its questionable booty - and sailed in a newly purchased ship, the Antonio to New York City, where he tried to persuade the Earl of Bellomont, then colonial governor of New York, of his innocence. Bellomont, however, sent him to England for trial, and he was found guilty - May 8 and 9, 1701- of the murder of Moore and on five indictments of piracy. Important evidence concerning two of the piracy cases was suppressed at the trial, and some observers later questioned whether the evidence was sufficient for a guilty verdict.
Kidd was hanged, and some of his treasure was recovered from Gardiners Island of Long Island. Proceeds from his effects and goods taken from the Antonio were donated to charity. In years that followed, the name of Captain Kidd has become inseparable from the romanticized concept of the swashbuckling pirate of Western fiction. Among other stories concerning caches of treasure he supposedly buried is Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Gold Bug.”
Narrator: This is the end of Section 4. You now have half a minute to check your answers.