1. Section 1
Narrator: Listening practice Section 1. You will hear a conversation between an IETLS candidate and an IETLS administrator. Look at questions 1 to 5. Listen to the first part of the conversation and answer questions 1 to 5.
Candidate: Good afternoon. I’m applying for a master’s program at the University of Exeter in the UK. I’m planning to register for the IETLS exam at your center next month. I have some questions I’d like to ask you before I register if that’s okay.
Administrator: Certainly. Would you be taking the Academic module?
Candidate: I think so, but I’ll have to contact the university just to make sure.
Administrator: You’ll probably need the Academic because most universities don’t accept the General Training, and anyway, the procedures to register for the exam are the same for both the General and the Academic module.
Candidate: Good. My first question is whether I sit all parts of the exam on the same day. I don’t live here, you see, and for me, it would be more convenient to do all the papers on the same day.
Administrator: Umm, unfortunately, the speaking part is scheduled for Thursdays, and reading, writing and listening tests take place on Saturdays. We can’t change the days, I’m afraid.
Candidate: Hmm, that’s a pity. Well, never mind. What sort of documents do I need to bring in order to register?
Administrator: You’ll have to fill in the IELTS application form, and bring an ID, a copy of your ID, and two passport size photos on a white background.
Candidate: Will any ID do?
Administrator: We only accept original passports and national IDs.
Candidate: That’s good to know. Did you say that reading, writing and listening are scheduled for Saturday?
Administrator: That’s right.
Candidate: Will I get a break in between the papers?
Administrator: I’m afraid there aren’t any breaks between the papers. Each paper takes an hour to complete so it’s three hours straight through. You’ll first do listening and then reading, followed by the writing test. This is a standard requirement from Cambridge.
Narrator: Now look at the questions 6 to 10. As the conversation continues, complete questions 6 to 10.
Candidate: Ok. And how soon after the test can I pick up my results?
Administrator: It takes 13 calendar days for the results to be processed.
Candidate: Can you let me know how much it is and the form of payment?
Administrator: The examination fee is 200 US dollars. You can pay by credit or debit card, we also accept checks. We only accept cash as a form of payment in exceptional circumstances.
Candidate: And one last question, can I mail you the application documents?
Administrator: Certainly. You can send all the documents by registered mail to our address: 47 Clover Place, New Rochelle, New York.
Candidate: Can you spell New Rochelle for me, please?
Administrator: Certainly. N-E-W-R-O-C-H-E-L-L-E.
Candidate: Could I have the zip code as well?
Administrator: Sure. Our zip code is 10806.
Administrator: You can also email us at I - firstname.lastname@example.org, or phone us at 325 9082.
Candidate: I think that’s all. Thank you very much for the information. Bye.
Administrator: You’re welcome. Goodbye.
2. Section 2
Narrator: You will hear a tour guide talking to her tour group. First, you will have time to look at questions 11 to 15. Now listen carefully and answer questions 11 to 15.
Tour guide: Well, we certainly have a busy day ahead of us, so let's get started, shall we? You'll find a map of the museum with the itinerary I've just handed out. The museum's our first port of call, so let's have a look at the map now.
The door on the right of the entrance hall leads into the Gift Shop and Ticket Centre. Once we pick up our entrance tickets, I'd ask everyone to deposit their bags and coats in the cloakroom which is located towards the back of the Gift Shop and Ticket Centre. If you want to pick up an information leaflet, you can approach the Information Desk situated along the right-hand side.
Now, once you come back into the entrance hall, the door on the opposite side to the Gift Shop leads into the Art Gallery. There is a special exhibition on there at the moment which is not to be missed. If you continue on up the entrance hallway, that leads into the Main Exhibition Centre. At the back left-hand side, there are some toilets. Beside the toilets, you'll find the 3D Theatre. I strongly recommend that you make time for the 30-minute presentation in the theatre. It is well worth a viewing. Running along the right-hand side of the Main Exhibition Centre is the Modern Art Studio. Here, not only can you view some of the most famous works of the 20th century, but you can also sit in on a workshop run by a local artist. So that's the Art Museum.
Narrator: Before you hear the rest of the discussion you have some time to look at questions 16-20.nNow listen and answer questions 16-20.
Next on the itinerary is the Aquarium. Depending on how long we spend at the museum, we might have to give this one a miss. It's not what I'd call a highlight of the day, but it would be a shame if we didn't get to see it, as it's on route to the Solheim Country Club, where we're booked in for lunch at 1 o'clock.
Originally, we had planned to stop off at the Milltown Winery afterwards but we've had to scrap that plan. Otherwise, we'd never get to the Zoological Gardens before closing time. We have pre-booked the gardens and must be there by 2:30, so no dillydallying please, after lunch straight back onto the bus. The gardens close at 3:30, so we've an hour there which should give us ample time to look around.
Time allowing, we'll stop off at the famous Stout Brewery after that if traffic isn't too heavy and we're in Lincoln before 5:00. If not, we'll head straight for the National Concert Hall where you're in for a real treat of an evening with a performance from the world-renowned cellist, Andre Borowski. We have to be in our seats by 6:30 sharp. After that, it's back to the hotel for the night where a buffet meal will be waiting for us at half eight - or whenever we get back.
Narrator: That is the end of Section 2. You now have half a minute to check your answers.
3. Section 3
Narrator: You are going to hear a lecture about the World’s Energy. Listen carefully and write no more than three words to fill in the blank in the following summary. First, you have some time to look at the questions. Now, listen to the lecture.
The World’s energy comes from a number of different sources which may be broadly classified into two categories. The first which includes fossil fuels and minerals such as oil, coal, natural gas, uranium, etc, comprises sources of energy that are non-renewable. The second category which includes the wind, the waves, the tides, the temperature of the Ocean and the Sun, comprises sources that will continue to provide energy in virtually unlimited quantities as long as the Earth and the Sun exist.
And yet, despite the fact that they are to all intents and purposes inexhaustible, the sources of the second category remain almost untapped. Most energy is produced today by burning hydrocarbon fuels drawn from the world’s non-renewables reserves. The amount of these potential reserves by which is generally meant the quantity that can be extracted by present or conceivable future techniques is a matter of some controversy.
This is understandable. If we consider the enormous difficulties involved in determining how much fuel nature has hidden in the Earth and how much of it is or will become accessible, and the fact that different countries use different methods of estimation. Proven recoverable reserves, i.e, those whose extraction is already an economically feasible proposition are considerably smaller. The great difference between potential and proven recoverable reserves is explained by the fact: Nature has placed so much of this fossil fuel in remote parts of the globe at depths and in quantities that makes its extraction unjustifiable at present in economic terms.
Let us now compare proven recoverable reserves with estimated consumption. Between now and the year 2010, the quantity of energy required by the world will account for almost 10% of its proven recoverable fossil fuels. If no other source of energy is employed, 78% of these fuels will have been used up by the year 2050. While a hundred years later according to the most moderate long-term forecast, there will be none left.
Comparison of consumption with potential reserves produces a somewhat brighter picture. By the year 2010, the demand for energy will have used up only 3.6% of these reserves, and by 2050 - 26%, a century later – about half of these reserves will still remain.
These comparisons clearly show that the World’s stock of chemical fuels is quite sufficient to cover its energy requirements for at least another 100 years. There is thus, no immediate danger of as it were emptying the coal bucket.
On the other hand, these reserves of fuels are limited and within the foreseeable future, there could be none left. It is possible that our children’s grandchildren might find themselves in the World drain dry of natural gas and oil. We should thus lose no time in thinking about ways and means of producing artificial oil or artificial gas, and above all of producing energy in unlimited quantities from sources which in no way threatened the environment.
Narrator: That is the end of Section 3. You now have half a minute to check your answers. Now turn to Section 4.
4. Section 4
Narrator: You will hear a lecture about Project Management being given by a university lecturer. First, look at questions 31 to 40. Now listen to the lecture and answer questions 31 to 40.
Lecturer: I'd like to begin today with a quick review of last week’s lecture. We saw the definition of project management as something which has a clear beginning and a clear completion date with goals, a budget, and a schedule. We saw its presence in the private and public sectors in many different industries. You'll also remember that we outlined the life cycle as it were, of a project and looked at the first of a four-stage cycle - establishing the limits of the project.
Today, we're going to talk broadly about the second stage of project management - developing a plan for the project. Next week we'll focus on the implementation of the project and then, the final stage - its evaluation.
Let's get started on today's topic, though - planning the project. The success of a project will depend on the skills and care which you put in at this initial planning stage. Planning is not only necessary in terms of budget or cost, it’s also crucial that you consider the time frame of a project and the standards which you’ll be expected to provide. These three elements are, of course, integrated. Project planning is best conducted as a team. You might have to take responsibility for handing over the final plan but without a team behind you, you’ll find it almost impossible to plan effectively.
We’ll discuss budgetary planning firstly because that is, of course, what you are most likely to be evaluated on by your own manager. Before drawing up a budget, you’ll need to understand the time frame involved to carry out the work, and the standard of delivery at which the labor and materials are to be supplied. Now, this is arguably the most difficult to plan for. You’ll never plan completely accurately for a project in terms of money but you will become better at planning realistically. And it is this part of the planning process that you will do last.
The best way to plan the cost of a project is to consider all the factors involved, and how those factors relate to time and standard of delivery. Write these down on a spreadsheet format and begin the task of costing and estimating. The company that you're employed by will always have their own systems in place for doing this. They will also indicate the kind of profit they are looking for, usually in percentage terms.
The second stage of planning is the allocation of time to a project, and for this, you’ll have to canvass others for help. Only by asking the advice and opinions of those with expertise in the field, will you be able to establish the size of each unit of work to be completed and the order in which those units of work should be carried out. Remember that some units of work may be done simultaneously but many cannot.
In your tutorials this week, you’ll be introduced to the Gant Chart - that's G-A-N-T. This method of planning project activities has been very successful in the field of project management. The complete set of tasks involved in a project are identified and then planned in relation to each other. You'll soon discover that organizing and prioritizing activities is quite an art form.
The third part of your planning as I said, will affect your money and time considerations and that is the standard of delivery that the project demands. These standards will be outlined in the tender documents if they’ve been your guide or the master plan from which you're working. Always make sure that you’ve got all of the project-related documents that are available. For every unit of work that is to be completed, you’ll have to write specifications - they are detailed descriptions outlining specific standards of quality in materials and labour. If these specifications are not carefully written and then complied with, the project is unlikely to be successful. These specifications will be referred to many times once the project is underway.
You will also have to deal with a quality assurance manager at this stage who will advise you on the standards which need to be met. Quality management has become a valued component in successful project management companies.
I've provided you with an outline of the planning process for project management but you'll be looking at these three elements in more depth in your tutorials this week.
Narrator: That is the end of Section 4 and the end of the Listening Test. You now have half a minute to check your answers.